Export Promotion Council List.

Export Promotion Council

This is the List of Export Promotion Council Registration to do International Trade Exporters India.


Head Office


Office in Maharashtra

Agricultural & Processed Food Products Export Development Authority,

3 rd Floor, Ansal Chambers II, 6,Bhikaji Cama Place, New Delhi 110 066

Tel. : 011-612159/2148

Fax: 011-6195016



Agricultural & Processed Food Products Export Development Authority,


Tel. : 2183106/9060

Fax:  2189060

Email: apedamum@bom.nic.in


Apparel Export Promotion Council

15 NBCC Tower,

6 Bhikaji Cama Place,

New Delhi 110 066

Tel. : 011-6183351/6169393-4

Email: apecnet@giasd101vsnl.net.in

Website: www. aepcindia.com


Apparel Export Promotion Council

Bajaj Bhavan, 12 th Floor,

Nariman Point,

Mumbai-400 005

Tel. : 2853419/3420/2823800

Fax: 2043178

Email: apeq@x400.nic.in

Website: www. aepc.com


Basic Chemicals, Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics

Export Promotion Council (CHEMEXCIL)

Jhansi Castle, 4 th Floor,

7, Cooperage Road, Mumbai-400 039

Tel.: 2202 1288 /1330/6549

Fax: 2202 6684

Basic Chemicals, Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics

Export Promotion Council (CHEMEXCIL)

World Trade Centre, Centre 1, 12 th Floor,

Cuffe Parade,  Mumbai-400 005.

Tel.: 2218 8344 / 8339

Email:  chem@giasbm01vsnl.net.in

Website: www. chemexcil.org

Carpet Export Promotion Council

110-A/1, Krishna Nagar (Gali No.5)

Safdarjung Enclave, New Delhi 110029

Tel.: 011- 6102742/1024

Fax: 011-616 5299

Email:  cepc@nda.vsnl.net.in

Website: www.Indiancarpets.com



Cashew Export Promotion Council of India.

P.B.No.1709, Chitoor Road,

Ernakulum South, Cochin 682 016

Tel.: 0484-361 459 /369 080/ 353 357

Fax: 0484 370973



Chemical & Allied Products Export Promotion

Council ( CAPEXIL)

14/1 B, 2 nd Floor. World Trade Centre, Ezra Street, Calcutta 700 001

Tel. :  033-220 7620

Fax: 033 -225 5070

Email: 1)  capexilh@cal.vsnl.net.in



Chemical & Allied Products Export Promotion

Council ( CAPEXIL)

D-17. Commerce Centre, Taredo Road,

Mumbai 400 034

Tel.: 494 3410

Fax : 493 7665

Email : capexilm.epc@gems.vsnl.net.in


Coffee Board.

1.       Dr, Ambedkar Veedhi

Bangalore-560 001

Tel : 080-22 2917/0250

Fax : 080-226 5557


Coir Board

Coir House

M.G. Road, Ernakulam South

Cochin 682 016

Tel.: 351807/788

Fax : 370034



Cotton Textiles  Export Promotion Council

Engineering Centre

9,Mathew Road, Mumbai-400 004

Tel: 2363 2910-13

Fax: 2363 2914

Email : exprocil@bom3.vsnl.net.in



Cotton Textiles Export Promotion Council.

Cecil Court, 26 Mahakavi Bhushan Marg

Mumbai-400 039

Tel: 202 1477/ 1522 /7221

Fax: 202 2510

Email : exprocil@bom3.vsnl.net.in


Council for Leather Exports

Leather Centre

53, Raja Muthiah Road,

Chennai 600 003

Tel: 044-589 098/ 582 041 /580 834

Fax: 044-588 713/ 587 083

Email :  clel@giasmd01.vsnl.net.in


Council for Leather Exports

11/4, World Trade Centre, Centre 1,

Cuffe Parade, Mumbai 400 005

Tel: 218 4060

Fax: 215 1207

Email :  cleb@bom5.vsnl.net.in


Electronics & Computer Software Export

Promotion Council

PHD House, 3 rd Floor, Ramakrishna Dalmia Wing.

Off. Asiad Village

Tel. : 011-696 5103/4463

Fax : 011-651 0632/ 685 3412

Email :  esc@nda.vsnl.net.in



Engineering Export Promotion Council

World Trade Centre, 1 st  floor

14/1 B Ezra Street,

Calcutta 700 001

Tel : 033-250 442 /443

Fax : 033-225 8968

Email :  eepcho@gias101.vsnl.net.in


Engineering Export Promotion Council

World Trade Centre, 1

Cuffee Parade

Mumbai -400 005

Tel : 218 6655/56/60

Fax : 218 0119

Email: eepcmum@bom3.vsnl.net.in


Federation of Indian Export Organisations

PHD House, 3 rd Floor,

Opp, Asian Games Village.

New Delhi 110 016

Tel : 011-685 1310/ 312/ 314

Fax : 011-686 3087

Email :  fieo@giasd101.vsnl.net.in


Federation of Indian Export Organisations

World Trade Centre, 1  11th  Floor, Cuffee  Parade, Mumbai – 400 005

Tel : 218 5093/3354

Fax : 218 3875

Email :  fieowr@giasbm01.vsnl.net.in


Gem & Jewellery Export Promotion Council

Diamond Plaza

391-A, Dr. B.Bhandkamkar Marg.

Mumbai 400 004

Tel. 2382 1801 / 06 /385 6916

Fax.: 2386 8752

Email :  giepc@vsnl.com


Gem & Jewellery Export Promotion Council

Diamond Plaza

391-A, Dr. B. Bhandkamkar Marg.

Mumbai 400 004

Tel. 2382 1801 / 06 /385 6916

Fax.: 2386 8752

Email :  giepc@vsnl.com


Handloom Export Promotion Council

18 ,Chatedral Garden Road ,Nungambakam

Madras 600 034

Tel.: 044-827 8879 /6043

Fax:  044-827 1761



Indian Silk Export Promotion Council

62, Mittal Chambers, Nariman Point

Mumbai 400 021

Tel:, 2202 5866 /7662/204 9113

Fax : 2287 4606

Email :  isepc@bom2vsnl.net.in


Marine Products Export Development Authority


Panampilly Nagar Avenue

Cochin 682 015

Tel.: 0484-311 979-83

Fax : 0484-313361



Website: www.mpedacom


Indian Silk Export Promotion Council

62, Mittal Chambers , Nariman Point

Mumbai 400 021

Tel:, 2202 5866 /7662/204 9113

Fax : 2287 4606

Email :  isepc@bom2vsnl.net.in


Marine Products Export Development Authority

605, Regent Chambers

Nariman Point

Mumbai 400 021

Tel.: 283 1399

Fax : 283 4354

Email:mpeda.bombay@ smx.sprintrpg.ems.vsnl.Net 


Website: www.mpedacom


Overseas Construction Council of India

H-118 Himalaya House

23 , Kasturba Gandhi Marg

New Delhi 110 001

Tel.: 011-372 2425/332 7550

Fax : 011- 3312936

Overseas Construction Council of India

Commerce Centre. 7 th Floor,

Tardeoi Mumbai 400 034

Tel.:  494 3243/2344

Fax : 495 0507


Plastic & Linoleums Export Promotion

World Trade Centre

Centre 1,  11th floor,

Cuffee  Parade, Mumbai 400 005

Tel.:  2218 4474/456

Fax : 2218 4810

Plastic & Linoleums Export Promotion

World Trade Centre

Centre 1,  11th floor,

Cuffee  Parade, Mumbai 400 005

Tel.:  2218 4474 / 456

Fax : 2218 4810

Email:  plexho@bom3vsnl.Net.in

Website: www. Plexconcil.org/plexc on.org

Powerloom Export Promotion Council

Cecil Court, ‘B’ Wing 4 th floor,

Mahakavi Bhushan Marg

Colaba, Mumbai 400 039

Tel.:  2284 6518/19

Fax : 2284 6517

Powerloom Export Promotion Council

Cecil Court, ‘B’ Wing 4 th floor,

Mahakavi Bhushan Marg

Colaba, Mumbai 400 039

Tel.:  2284 6518/19

Fax : 2284 6517

Email: pdexcil.pdepc @gems.vsnl.Net.in

Website: http:// www.pdexcil.org

Rubber Board

Shastri Road P.B. No.1122 Kottayam 686 002

Tel.:  0481-571 231/2/5/6/361

Fax :  0481-571 380


Shellac Export Promotion Council

14/ a B Ezra Street

World Trade Centre

Calcutta 700 001

Tel.:  25-4556

Fax :  033-248 4046 / 1 F-384 &

033-248 2070/1 F-384


Spice Board

Sugandha  Bhavan

Cochin N.H. Bye Pass Road

Palarivattam P.B.No. 2277

Cochin  682 025

Tel.:  04894-333 610

Fax :  0484-331 429

Spice Board

Panchli Hospital Building , 2 nd floor

90 ft. Road

Nath Pai Nagar, Ghatkopar

Tel.:  512 1471/ 3673

Fax :   514 3673

Sports Goods Export Promotion Council

2 nd  Floor, 1-E/6 Swami Ram

Tirth Nagar New Delhi 110 055

Tel.:  011-525 695

Fax :  011-753 2147


Synthetic & Rayon Textiles Export Promotion Council

Resham Bhavan

78’ Veer Nariman Road

Mumbai – 400 020

Tel.: 204 8797 / 8690 /0168

Fax :  204 8358

Website:  www.synthetictextile.com

Synthetic & Rayon Textiles Export Promotion Council

Resham Bhavan,78’ Veer Nariman Road

Mumbai – 400 020

Tel.: 204 8797 / 8690 /0168

Fax :  204 8358

Email : srtepc@vsnl.com

Website:  www.synthetictextile.com


Tea Board

14 B. T.M. Sarani

Calcutta 700 001

Tel, : 033-225 1411

Fax : 033-225 1417


Tea Board

78, Reham Bhavan ,

Veer Nariman Road.

Mumbai- 400 020

Tel, : 2204 1699

Tobacco Board

Shrinivas Rao Thota

G.T. Road, P.B. No.322 Gunture, Andhar Pradesh

Tel. : 522 004


Wool & Woollen Export Promotion Council

612/714 Asoka Estate

24, Barakhamba Ropad

New Delhi 110 001

Tel.: 011- 331 5512

Fax :  011- 331 4626

Email : wwepc@nda.vsnl.net.in

Website:  http://www.wwepc.com

Wool & Woollen Export Promotion Council

Churchgate Chambers

5, New Marine  Lines,

Mumbai 400 020

Tel. : 262 4651 / 4680

Fax : 262 4651


Jt. Director General for Foreign Trade

(For Exim Policy )

Website:  http://www.nic.in/eximpol

Reserve Bank of India

(For Exchange Control Manual

Website : http://www.ecm.rbi.org.in

This is the List of Export Promotion Council Registration to do International Trade Exporters India.


Procurement, Structure Of Supply Chain Department.

Procurement, Structure Of Supply Chain Department

We are going to discussed Procurement and  how supply chain department has to have close interaction with other departments in company for achieving desire goals of company and cannot afford to work in isolation.

 Procurement, Structure Of Supply Chain Department

Supply chain management being a critical function has to be handled by a competent person who should be part of the top management team. In view of this importance, the head of the material management function generally directly reports to the managing director like other departmental heads, viz, marketing, production, finance, personal, etc.

However, there can be little variations in organization plan depending upon the view and nature of operations of the organization.

The internal structure of the supply chain management department can be,

1.Structure based on commodities.
2. Structure based on location.
3. Structure based on functions.

Detail of each is,

Structure based on commodities.

Various items required by the organization are classified into different groups such as raw materials, spares, components, finished goods, important items, etc. The responsibility of age group is given to different individual.For example, carbide tools manufacturing company may have commodity groups for steel, carbide inserts, imported items and brought out components like shims, screws, levers, etc.

This structure avoids duplication of efforts as each commodity purchase is handled by a separate individual. Besides, the individuals are in charge of group can develop good rapport with the commodity market handled by him.

Secondly, this structure enables standardization and bulk buying in each group.

Structure based on location.

This structure is preferred when organisation has several plants spread across different location in the country.The decentralized supply chain management setup has separate materials manager at each location. This enables reduction in cost and time of procurement besides faster coordination with other departments like production, marketing etc.

An organization can also have an option of centralized supply chain management department instead of decentralized set up at each location. The advantage of this is the reduction in cost due to centralize bulk buying for requirements of all plants at different locations. Secondly it is possible to transfer material from one place to another in case of emergency or excess supplies.

Some organizations may develop system combining the advantages of centralization and decentralization. In this system, central supply chain management staff located at headquarters exercises control at policy level in terms of overall guidelines, procedures and system to be followed by decentralized departments at different plant locations.

The departments and plant are expected to report periodically to the centralised materials department and headquarters. The departments at plant level are given financial limits for the purchases by them, beyond which permission from headquarters is necessary. The items common to all plants is purchased by headquarters, which enables substantial saving due to bulk buying’s.

Structure based on the function.

In this structure the groups are formed on the basis of different functions like purchase, transport, receiving, stores, etc.

Each function is headed by a separate individual who reports directly to materials manager, example purchase activities for different plants will be looked after by one individual.

Similarly transport requirement for all plants will be looked after by another individual.

Composition of purchase department.

The composition of purchase department will depend upon requirements and the kind of activities involved in the organization. Purchase department also need support services like typing, clerical, statistical information, etc.

In large companies purchase department is supported by cost analysts, economists and legal advisers.


Relationships with other departments.

Purchase department should have continuing relations with only not only other departments in organization but also with its suppliers.

Procurement and engineering

Engineering department is responsible for preparing the technical specifications for company’s products and the materials required to produce product these products for maximizing profits.

The material specified by the engineering department must be both economical to procure and economical to fabricate and similarly these should be available from more than one supplier/ producer.

Generally, there has to be greater understanding between these two departments on their concepts of materials problems. Engineers may look for more safety, quality and performance, while purchaser may look for cost and timing and stick to closer performance requirements than higher safety.

Hence, dilemma of cost vs safety may crop up. In such circumstances, mutual understanding and willingness to give and take is necessary between purchase and engineering department to arrive at mutually satisfactory solution.

 Procurement and operations/ production.

The purchase department procures the goods and materials needed for production, after receiving material requisition from them.

If production department finalizes its production schedule last minute and does not allow purchase department sufficient time then such purchases may be very costly and increase final cost of company’s products.

Such situation leaves inadequate time for selection of good supplier and negotiate, the price. As against this, sometimes production department summit production schedule/ requisition to purchase department and purchase department fails to procure the necessary goods and materials.

This may result in starvation of raw materials required for production department and production of goods, which are not in demand.

Material shortages in process industries are very serious which may result in the complete production stoppage.

A good coordination between production and purchase department may lead to selection of proper materials and reduction in final cost of production.

Purchase department should also ensure timely supply of maintenance spares and materials to maintenance department, which is responsible for ensuring uninterrupted production.

Procurement and marketing .

Marketing department relies on the efficiency of purchase and production department when it commits delivery dates and quality standards to the customer the cost of finished products also depends upon the costs going for purchase of raw materials.

Similarly purchasing production sales cycle depends upon sales forecast given by marketing department.

This forecast decides the production schedule, which is the basis for purchase schedule. Hence it is necessary that marketing department summit accurate forecast.

Any changes in sales forecast should be immediately intimate to production as well as purchase department. Similarly purchase department should immediately inform marketing department about any increases in raw material prices, which can be used by marketing department for seeking price increase from its customer.

Purchase department can also access to its sales department by serving as a practical sales laboratory.

Many manufacturers and suppliers approach purchase department for selling their goods and services.

Therefore, officers in the purchase department can act as source of information to marketing staff to develop and refined their company’s sales policies and procedures.

Procurement and finance

Success of the business depend upon goods good financial planning. Accurate sales forecast and purchasing schedule unable to plan working capital needs and the cash required at given moment. Finance department is responsible for making prompt payment to the suppliers, which creates healthy relationship between purchaser and supplier. However, to affect this purchase department must give sufficient advance notice to finance department to organize the requirement of fund. Finance department also keeps watch on purchase transaction viz.

It sees that company’s policies, rules and regulations are adhered to when purchase transaction take place. Sometimes to take advantage of low prices of materials available in market, the purchase department me make large purchases, however, before this it should consult finance department about availability of finances and excess load on these treasuries.As against this, if finance department does not make available funds for such low-price purchase opportunity, the company may have to pay higher price for same materials at a later date.

Hence, close cooperation between purchase and finance department is necessary to manage working capital and to take benefit at right buying opportunities.

Procurement and planning

Purchase department can assist planning department to draw a realistic short term and long-term plans for the company based on their knowledge of the market.Purchase department can feed planning department accurate forecast about the position of materials supplies, market and new products introduced into the market.

As against this planning department should take purchase department in full confidence about plans chalked out by company.

Procurement and legal 

Purchase department being responsible for materials purchases, enters into a legal contract between them and suppliers, through purchase order.It is necessary that purchase department should understand legal implications of various clauses in purchase order.

Here, legal department can readily assist purchase department to draft and interpret correct clauses in purchase order or contract so as to protect interest of the company as well as purchase department.

Procurement and personnel department 

For efficient functioning purchase department should be equipped with the right kind of staff in terms of their knowledge and skills.Personnel department can correctly assess their needs, recruit and train search stuff for purchase department.


Arranging Finance for Exports from eximbank.

Arranging Finance for Exports From eximbank

Arranging Finance for Exports From eximbank

Financial Assistance is a main role of eximbank in India .Financial assistance from eximbank to the exporters India is generally provided by the Commercial banks before shipment as well as after shipment of goods. The assistance provided before shipment of goods.The assistance provided before shipment of goods is known as pre-shipment finance and that provided after the shipment of goods is known as post shipment finance.Pre-shipment finance is given for working capital for purchase of raw material. Processing, packaging, transportation, ware-housing etc. of the goods meant for export.Post-shipment finance is provided for bridging the gap between the shipment of goods and realization of exports proceeds.

The latter is done by the eximbank by purchasing or negotiating the exports documents or by extending advance against exports bills accepted on collection basis.While doing so, the  eximbank adjust the pre-shipment advance, if any, already granted to the exporter. Hence, all of this it is called the export import bank of India

1. Preshipment Finance or import export loans,an application for pre-shipment advance should be made by you to your banker along with the following documents:

i) Confirmed exports order/contract of L/C etc. in original. Where it is not available, an undertaking to the effect that the same will be produced in the eximbank, within the reasonable time for verification and endorsement, should be given.
ii) An undertaking that the advance will be utilized for the specific purpose of procuring /manufacturing/shipping etc., of the goods meant for exports only. As stated in the relative confirmed exports order or the L/C.
iii) If you are a sub-supplier and want to supply the goods to the Exports /Trading/ Star Trading House or Merchant Exporter, an undertaking from the Merchant Exporter or Exports/Trading/Star Trading House stating that they have not/ will not avail themselves of packing credit facility against the same transaction of the same purpose till the original packing credit is liquidated.
iv) Copies of income Tax/Wealth Tax Assessment Order for the late 2/3 years in the case of sole proprietary and partnership firm.
v) Copy of Importer’s Code Number.
vi) Copy of valid RCC held by you and /or the Exports /Trading/star Trading House Certificate.
vii) Appropriate policy /guarantee of the ECGC.
viii) Any other documents as required by the Bank.

Post shipment Finance in Indian Rupees.

Post Shipment finance is finance provided against shipping documents. It is also provided against duty drawback claims. It is provided in the following forms.

a) Purchase of Exports Documents drawn under Exports Order.
b) Advances against Exports Bills sent on Collection.
c) Advance against Goods sent on Consignment Basis.
d) Advance against Undrawn Balance.
e) Advance against Retention Money.
f) Advance against Claim of Duty Drawback.
g) Negotiation of Exports Documents Drawn under L/C.

Understanding risks in International Trade.

While selling abroad, you undergo the following risks:
1) Credit risk,
2) Currency risks.
3) Carriage risks.
4) Country risks.

These risks can be insured to a great extent by taking appropriate steps. Credit risk against the buyer can be covered by insisting upon an irrevocable letter of credit from the overseas buyer to be issued by a bank of good standing.

An appropriate policy from Exports Credit Guarantee Corporation of India can also be obtained for this purpose. Country risks are also covered by the ECGC.

As regards currency risk, i.e. possible loss due to ad verse fluctuation in exchange rates, you should obtain forward cove r from your bank authorized to deal in foreign exchange.

Exim Bank

Let us see, how does the export import bank work?

Exim Bank is managed by a Board of Directors, which has representatives from the Government, Reserve Bank of India, Export Credit Guarantee Corporation (ECGC) of India. A financial institution, public sector banks, and the business community.

The Bank’s functions are segmented into several operating groups including:

Corporate Banking Group

which handles a variety of financing programs for Export Oriented Units (EOUs), Importers, and overseas investment by Indian companies.

Project Finance / Trade Finance Group

handles the entire ranges of export credit services such as supplier’s credit.  Pre-shipment credit, buyer’s credit, and finance for export of projects & consultancy services. Guarantees, forfeiting etc.

Lines of Credit

Group Lines of Credit (LOC) is a financing mechanism that provides a safe mode of non-recourse financing option to Indian exporters, especially to SMEs. And serves as an effective market entry tool.

Agri Business Group,

to spearhead the initiative to promote and support Agri-exports. The Group handles projects and export transactions in the agricultural sector for financing.

Small and Medium Enterprises Group

to the specific financing requirements of export oriented SMEs.  The group handles credit proposals from SMEs under various lending programs of the Bank.

Export Services Group

offers variety of advisory and value-added information services aimed at investment promotion.

Fee based Export Marketing Services

Bank offers assistance to Indian company is, to enable them establish their products in overseas markets.

Besides these the Support Services groups, which include: Research & Planning Corporate Finance, Loan Recovery, Internal Audit, Management information Services. Information Technology, Legal, Human Resources Management and Corporate Affairs.

Exim Bank Headquarter

Center One Building,  Floor 21, World Trade Center,Complex,

Cuffee Parade, Mumbai 400 005

Phone: 91 22 22185272,

Fax: 91 22 22182572,

E-mail: cag@eximbankinda.in.

Arranging Finance for Exports From eximbank

Purchasing , Supply Chain Management.

Purchasing,Supply Chain Management

Purchasing and Supply Chain Management.

Purchasing , Supply Chain Management is a total concept involving and organizational structure unifying into a single responsibility the systematic flow and control of material and identification of the need through customer delivery.

The Supply Chain management contributes to increased profitability by coordinated achievement of at least materials cost.

This is achieved by optimizing capital investment, capacity of personal, consistent with the appropriate customer service level.

Supply Chain Management is an organizational concept in which a single manager has authority and responsibility for all activity for all activities, principally concern with the flow of material into organization. i.e. purchasing production planning and scheduling incoming traffic inventory control receiving and store normally are included

Supply Chain Management – Scope.

The scope of materials management is very vast however, we can broadly identify the following functions of material management

1.Inventory Control.

This function covers aspects like setting inventory levels, ABC analysis, fixing economical ordering quantities, verifying safety stock levels, lead time even analysis and reporting.

Some other functions of Supply Chain managements are below

  • -Receiving and inspection of incoming materials.
  • -Inward and outward transportation to various departments.
  • -Materials handling.
  • -Disposal of scrap, obsolete material, old equipment and machinery, surplus material.
  • -Value analysis.

2.Planning and Programming of SCM

This is accomplished with the help of sales forecast and production plans.

Supply chain planning and programming involves identifying the individual requirements of parts, preparing materials budget, forecasting the level of inventories, scheduling the order and monitoring the performance in relation to production and sales.

3.Stores | Warehousing

Warehouse is responsible for physical control of materials, preserving materials, minimization of defects and damages through timely disposal and efficient handling.

Stores also maintain proper record of materials, ensures proper location and stacking of materials. The physical verification of stocks and the reconciling them with book figures is also responsibility of stores.


These consists of selection of source of supply, deciding terms of purchase, placement of purchase orders, follow up and maintaining good relationship with supplies, approval of payments to supplier besides evaluating and rating suppliers.


Objectives of Supply Chain Management

Prominent objective of Supply Chain management is as under,

  1. To ensure continuous and uninterrupted production or services operations by maintaining steady flow of SCM.
  2. To reduce the cost of material by purchasing various material of right quality and right quantity from source at right price at appropriate time.
  3. To achieve economies in the cost incurred on material, after their purchase through storage, processing and warehousing till the finished goods ultimately reach customers.
  4. To minimize working capital requirements through proper and scientific inventory control.
  5. To keep watch on new products available in the market.
  6. To increase competitiveness of manufactured goods by reducing their price through cost reduction and value analysis.
  7. To identify import substitute product to reduce overall requirement of foreign exchange and dependence on foreign suppliers.
  8. To ensure co-operation and co-ordination among all departments within the company to meet material management objective and corporate and functional levels.
  9. To supply better quality raw materials or components with ultimate aim to improve quality of end products.
  10. To conserve materials resources within an organization with a view to conserve natural resources.

Indian Agricultural Exports Imports

Common Steps involved in starting export import business in India.

What is Export in exporters India?

Indian Agricultural Exports Imports,As per Section 2(e) of Foreign Trade (Development & Regulation) Act. 1992, the term ‘export’ is defined to mean ‘taking out of India any goods by land, sea or air’.

As such, the goods must leave India, or cross the customs frontiers of India to a foreign destination, for being reckoned as export.

However, certain supplies of goods by main/sub-contractors to specified persons (who ultimately export such goods in the same form or after further processing) are reckoned at par with exports and thus called  popularly as ‘deemed  exports’.

Such supplies are specified in chapter 8 of the Foreign Trade Policy.

Common Steps involved in starting export import business in India.

  • Setting up of a most suitable type of business organizations.
  • Obtaining PAN from Income Tax Authorities, Securing Importer-Exporter Code No. from the Regional Licensing Authority, and Registration-cum-Membership Certificate from the concerned Export Promotion Councils, and Registration with the concerned VAT/Sales Tax Authorities etc. Obtaining registration as small scale industrial unit, medium or large scale unit or as a service provider from the concerned authorities.
  • Doing Export Business Correspondence.
  • Sending/Exporting samples and exhibits.
  • Appointing overseas agents.
  • Negotiating with prospective Buyers and entering into export Contracts.
  • Understanding new Foreign Trade Policy and Procedures.
  • Obtaining Credit Limit for the Buyer/Buyer’s Country from E.C.G.C.
  • Obtaining Finance for Export.
  • Booking Forward Exchange Contracts for Avoiding Loss from Adverse Exchange Rate
  • Ensuring Compliance with Quality Control and Pre-shipment Inspection of Goods.
  • Labelling, Packaging, and Marketing Export Consignments.
  • Obtaining Excise Clearance.
  • Arranging Marine Insurance of the Goods.
  • Complying with the Exchange Control Regulations regarding Declaration of Goods.
  • Preparing /Obtaining Export Documents.
  • Shipping and Customs clearance of the Goods and Indian Customs EDI System.
  • Tendering the Documents to the Bank.
  • Understanding Foreign Exchange Regulations and Facilities.
  • Obtaining various Facilities under the new Foreign trade Policy 2004-09
  • Obtaining export incentives under the Duty Drawback Scheme, Natural Rubber Subsidy Scheme, Marketing Development Assistance etc.
  • Reimbursement of Central Sales Tax.
  • Availing Tax Exemptions /Deductions under the Income Tax Act and sale Tax Laws.

Starting export import business in India.

  • Choosing appropriate mode of operations.

You can choose any of the following modes of operations:

  1. Merchant Exporter i.e. buying the goods from the market or from a manufacturer and then selling them to foreign buyers.
  2. Manufacturer Exporter i.e. manufacturing the goods yourself for export.
  • Sales Agents/ Commission Agent/Indenting Agent i.e. acting on behalf of the seller and charging commissions.
  1. Buying Agent i.e. acting on behalf of the buyer and charging commission.
  2. Service provider i.e. providing service from India to another country.
  • Naming the export import business in India.

Whatever the form of business organization has been finally decided, naming the business is an essential task for every exporter.

The name and style should be soft. Attractive, short and meaningful. Simple and attractive name indicating the nature of business is ideal.

The office should be located preferably in a commercial complex, in clean and workable surroundings. The letterhead should be simple and super providing information concerning Registered Office, Head Office, and Corporate Office. Email address, telephone number, fax, mobile number, bankers name and address etc.

Pick up a beautiful trade name and logo which reinforce your organisation’s name and image.  Open a current account with a reputed Bank in the name of the Organisation in whose name you intend to export.

It is advisable to open an account with the Bank that is authorized to deal in foreign exchange.

  • Selecting the Product to exporters India.

Carefully select the product to be exported.  For proper selection of the product, study the trends of export of different items from India.

The selected product must be in demand in the countries where it is to be exported.  It should be possible to procure or manufacture the selected product at most economical cost so that it can be competitively priced.

If should also be available in sufficient quantity acceptable quality standards; attractive packaging and it should be possible to supply it repeatedly and regularly.

Besides, while selecting the product. If has to be ensured that you are conversant with Government policy and regulations in respect of the products selected for export.

You should also know import regulations in respect of such commodities by the importing countries. If would be preferable if you have previous knowledge and experience of commodities selected by you for export.

A non-technical person should avoid dealing in high-tech products.  Another important feature to be kept in mind is that product should be adapted as per market requirement.

  • Making effective Business Correspondence import export companies.

Business communication is an interaction which clarifies issues. Resolves conflicts  and misunderstanding and helps in decision making.

Messages also reflect many angles and levels: factual, emotional and cultural. With the information technology modes and paperless communication being used.

Conveyance of information amongst the interacting parties will speed up and these will cut down on the business process costs and times. Technologically advanced media are required to be used in business communication.

For creating a very favorable and excellent impression, you must use a decent  letterhead on airmail paper and a good envelope, nicely printed, giving full particulars of your firm’s name, postal address, telephone number, mobile number, fax number and email address etc.

Your language should be polished, polite, soft, brief and to the point, giving a very clear picture of the subject to be put before the customer.

Letters should be typed/computer typed set, preferably in the language of the importing country.  Also make sure that the full and correct address is written and the envelope is duly stamped.

Selecting the Overseas Market the help of import export data.

Overseas markets are identified as traditional, potential and new.  Target markets should be selected after careful consideration of various factors like political relations of India with the importing country, embargo, scope of exporter’s selected product, demand stability.

Preferential treatment to products from developing counties, market penetration by competitive countries and product, distance of potential market, transport problems, language problems.

Tariff and non-tariff barriers, distribution infrastructure, six of demand in the market, expected life span of market and product requirements, sales and distribution channels.

For this purpose you should collect adequate market information before selecting one or more target markets.

The information can be collected from various sources like Export Promotion Councils (Epics) /Commodity Boards.  Federation of Indian Export Organisation (FIEO).  Indian Institute of Foreign Trade (IIFT).  Indian Trade Promotion Organisation (ITPO).

Indian Embassies and High Commissions abroad, Foreign Embassies and High Commissions in India. Import Promotion Institutions Abroad, Overseas Chambers of Commerce & Industries.

Various Directories, and Journals, market Survey Reports etc.

  • Selecting prospective overseas buyers and importers in USA.

You can collect address of the prospective buyers of the commodity from the following sources:

  • Enquiries from friends and relatives or other acquaintances residing in foreign countries.
  • Visiting /participating in International Trade Fairs and Exhibition s in India and abroad.
  • Contact with the Export Promotion Councils, Commodity Board and other Govt. Agencies.
  • Consulting International Yellow Pages. (A publication from New York) by Dun & Bradstreet, USA or other Yellow Pages of different Counties like Japan, Dubai etc.)
  • Collecting address from various Private Indian Publications.
  • Collecting information from international Trade Directories/Journals/Periodicals available in the libraries of Directorate General of Commercial Intelligence and Statistics, IIFT, EPCs, ITPO etc.
  • Browsing the Internet.
  • Making contacts with Trade Representatives of Overseas Governments in India and India Trade and Other Representatives/International Trade Development Authorities abroad).
  • Reading biweekly, fortnightly. Monthly bulletins such as Indian Trade Journal, Export Service Bulletin, Bulletins and Magazines issued and published by Federation of Exporters Organisation, ITPO, EPCs, Commodity Boards and Other allied agencies.
  • Visiting Embassies, Consulates etc. of other countries and taking note of addresses of importers for products proposed to be exported.
  • Advertising in newspapers having overseas editions and other foreign newspapers   and magazines etc.
  • Consulting ITPO. IIFT etc.
  • Contacting authorized dealers in foreign exchange with whom exporter is maintaining bank account.
  • Visiting popular Websites by making use of Internet Services.
  • Creating a detailed Website about your Organisation.

How to contact Overseas Importers in USA?

  • -By corresponding and sending and sending brochure and product literature to prospective overseas buyers.
  • -By undertaking trips to foreign markets and establishing personal rapport with overseas buyers. The number of trips will depend on you budget and resources. But it is essential for long term success in international marketing to establish personal rapport.  Foreign trip will provide first-hand information regarding the market.  Overseas customers, their requirement, taste. Preference and better out communication about the merits of exporter’s products.
  • -MSME units can take the help of SIDO’s Scheme- SSI MDA.
  • -Participation in buyers-sellers meet and meeting the members of foreign delegation invited by Export Promotion Council Concerned.
  • -Participation in International Trade Fairs, Exhibitions, Seminars and Buyer’s Sellers meet. Trade Fairs held in India as well as important world Centres provide contacts with a large number of buyers if an exporter has good quality products with reasonable price. These fairs are expensive, no doubt but such expenses are covered by future business.
  • -Advertisement and publicity in overseas reputed newspapers and magazines as well as in popular websites which people usually visit. Facilities of free publicity can be availed from Import Development Centres.
  • -Creating Websites and making it popular on international arena.
  1. Selecting Channels of Distribution from exporters India.

The following channels of distribution are generally utilized while exporting to overseas


  • Exports through Export Consortia.
  • Export through Canalizing Agencies.
  • Export through Other Established Merchant Exporters or Export Houses. Or Trading Houses.
  • Direct Exports.
  • Export through Overseas Sales Agencies.
  • Exports through e-Commerce which is in developmental stage in India.
  • Negotiating with Prospective Overseas Buyers and importers in USA.

Whatever the channels or distribution for exporting to the overseas countries is proposed to be Utilized, it is essential that the exporters should possess necessary skill for negotiating with the overseas channels of distribution. The ability to negotiate effectively is needed for discussion with importers or trade agents.

While conducting business negotiations, the prospective exporter should avoid conflict, controversy and criticism vies-a-vies the other party.

During conversation the attitude should be to communicate effectively. There should be eight ‘Cs’ i.e. coherence. Creativity, compromise. Concessions. Commonality. Consensus.  Commitment and compensation in business negotiations.

The general aspect to be kept in mind by you is about pricing.  The buyer’s contention is that prices are too high.  It should be noted that though the price is only one of the many considerations which are discussed during business negotiations, if influences the entire negotiating process.

Since this is the most sensitive issue in business negotiations, it should be fully postponed until all the other issues have been discussed and mutually agreed upon.

As far as the price is concerned, you should try to determine the buyer’s real interest in the product from the outset, only then a suitable counter proposal should be presented.

It should also be remembered that the buyer may request modifications in presentation of the product. You should show the willingness to meet such request, if possible, provided that it will result in profitable export business.

Price being the most important sales tool, it has to be properly developed and presented. Therefore, in order to create a favourable impression, minimize costly errors and generate repeated business.

The following points should be kept in mind while preparing the price list:

  1. Submit a computer printed list, printed on a regular bond paper and laid out simply and clearly (with at least an inch between column and between groupings.)
  2. Prominently, indicate the name of your company, its complete address, telephone number, mobile number and fax numbers and email address, including the country and city codes.
  3. Fully describe the items being quoted.
  4. Group the items logically (i.e. the fabrics together, all the made ups together etc.)
  5. Specify whether shipped by sea or by air, f.o.b.,or c.i.f., and to which port.
  6. Quote exact amount and not rounded off figures.
  7. Mention the dates up to which the prices quoted will remain valid.
  8. Where there is an internal reference number which must be quoted try to keep it Mention as short as possible (the buyer has no interest in the detail and the more complex it is, the greater the risk of errors. As regards the factors determining your price, please refer to the papa on ‘Export Pricing and Costing ‘further in the chapter.
  9. Clearly mention payment terms required by you.
  10. Preshipment inspection should be well defined.

One main point regarding export pricing is that while negotiating with overseas buyer.  You may not remember the cost of a product.

It may also be difficult for you to remember the profit margin built in various prices quoted by you.  A clear jotting of this information is not free from the risk of being leaked out to the competitors or to the overseas buyers.

Some coding is, therefore, essential for the prices quoted by you so that at any stage/ point of time, you can always utilize the information enabling you to profitably negotiate with the overseas buyers.

This can be done by assigning codes to the cost prices

Processing an Export Order as a exporters India.

You should first acknowledge the export order, and then proceed to examine carefully in respect of items, specification, Pre-shipment inspection, payment conditions, special packaging, labeling and marketing requirements, shipments and delivery date, marine insurance, documentation etc.

and if you are satisfied on these aspects, a formal confirmation should be sent to the buyer, otherwise clarification should be sought from the buyer before confirming the order.

After confirmation of the export order immediate steps should be taken for procurement/manufacture of the export goods. In the meanwhile, you should proceed to enter into a formal export contract with the overseas buyer.

 Entering into export Contract as export import Business.

In order to avoid disputes, if is necessary to enter into an export contract with the overseas buyer. For this purpose. Export contract should be carefully drafter incorporating comprehensive but in precise terms.

All relevant and important conditions of the trade deal. There should not be any ambiguity regarding the exact specific actions of goods and terms of sale including export price.

Mode of payment, storage and distribution methods, type of packaging.  Port of shipment, delivery schedule etc.  The different aspects of an export contract are enumerated as under:

  1.    Product, Standard and Specifications.
  2. Total Value of the contract.
  3. Terms of Delivery.
  4. Duties and Charges,
  5. Period of Delivery/Shipment.
  6. Labelling and Marking.
  7. Terms of Payment – Amount /Mode and Currency.
  8. Discounts and Commissions.
  9. Licences and Permits.
  10. Documentary Requirements.
  11. Force Majeure of Excuse for Non-Performance of Contract.

It will not be out of place to mention here the importance of arbitration clause in an export contract. Court proceedings do not offer a satisfactory method for settlement of commercial disputes as they involve inevitable delays, costs and technicalities.

On the other hand, arbitration provides an economics, expeditious and informal remedy for settlement of commercial disputes.

Arbitration proceedings are conducted in privacy and the awards are kept confidential. The Arbitrator is usually an expert in the subject’s matter of dispute.

The dates for arbitration meetings are fixed with the convenience of all concerned. Thus arbitration is the most suitable way for the settlements of commercial disputes and it may be invariable used by the businessmen in their commercial dealings.

Export Pricing and Costing to importers in USA

Export pricing should be differentiated from export costing. Price is what we offer to the customer. Cost is the price that we pay/incur for the product. Price includes our profit margin.  Cost includes only expenses. We have incurred.

Export pricing is the most important tool for promoting sales and facing international competition. The price has to be realistically worked out taking into consideration all export benefits and expenses.

However there is no fixed formula for successful export pricing. It will differ from exporter to exporter depending upon whether the exporter is a merchant agency.

You should also assess the strength of your competitor and anticipate the move of the competitor in the market. Pricing strategies will depend on various circumstantial situations.

You can still be competitive with higher price but with better delivery package or other advantages. Your prices will be determined by the following factors:

  • Range of products offered.
  • Prompt deliveries and continuity in supply.
  • After Sales Service in products like machine tools, consumer durables.
  • Product differentiation and brand image.
  • Frequency of purchase and total Annual Requirement.
  • Presumed relationship between quality and price.
  • Specialty value goods and gifts items.
  • Credit Offered.
  • Preference or prejudice for products originating from a particular source.
  • Aggressive marketing and sales promotion;
  • Prompt acceptance and settlement of claims:
  • Unique value goods and gift items.

Indian Agricultural Exports Imports.

How to get Import Export licence to do import export business in India.

How to get Import Export licence to do import export business in India

How to get Import Export licence to do import export business in India.


Registration of Exporters India. (How to get Import Export licence to do import export business in India)


  1. Registration with Reserve Bank of India no more required.

Prior to 1.1.1997, it was compulsory for every exporter to obtain an exporters’ code number from Reserve Bank of India before engaging into export.  This has since been dispensed with and registration with the licensing authorities is sufficient before commencing export or import export.

  1. Registration of Exporters India with Regional Authorities of Director General of Foreign Trade (Obtaining Importer-Exporter Code Number)

The Customs Authorities will permit you to import export or export goods into or from India only if you are holding goods to Nepal or to Myanmar through Indo-Myanmar through Indo-Myanmar Border areas or to China through Gunji, Namgaya, Shipkila or Nathula ports, you are not required to obtain IEC ONLINE CODE number provide the CIF value of a single consignment does not exceed Indian Rs. 25000/-

Application for Grant of IEC ONLINE CODE (import and export licence number) Code.

An application for grant of IEC CODE i.e. imports and export licence number shall be made by the Registered/Head Office of the applicant to the Regional Authority (list given in Appendix II) under whose jurisdiction the Registered Office in case of company and Head office in case of others, falls in the ‘Aaayaat Niryaat Form (ANF 2 A) given in Appendix 1 (in duplicate) and shall be accompanied by documents prescribed therein.  In case of STPI/EHTP/BTP units, the Regional Office of the DGFT having jurisdiction over the district in which the Regional / Head Office of the STPI UN it is located shall issue or amend the IECs.

Only one IEC CODE would be issued against a single PAN number.  Any proprietor can have only one IEC number and in case there are more than one IEC ONLINE CODE i.e. import and export licence code allotted to a proprietor, the same may be surrendered to the Regional Office for cancellation.

Before applying for IEC CODE number it is necessary to (i) obtain Permanent Account Number from the Income Tax Authorities and (ii) open a bank account in the name of your company/firm with any commercial bank authorized to deal in foreign exchange.  The procedure of application for IEC CODE No. has been simplifie3d since August 2006. The new system also allows online submission of the application.  An applicant may now choose:-

  • To file on online application and submit a physical copy of the application by taking print out of the online application.
  • To submit the application in physical form directly at the regional DGFT Office.

Process of Online Application how to get import export licence.

  1. Applicants can file an on-line application at the DGFT website http://dgft.gov.in online form has been designed to ensure feeding of all the required information by prompting user wherever a field is left blank. Applicant has to submit scanned copies of PAN and bank certificate along with their application.
  2. There are two options for payment of fee (A) If fee is paid by Demand Draft, IEC CODE will be generated only after receipt of the physical copy of the application (B) If IEC CODE application fee is paid through Electronic Fund Transfer facility, IEC CODE number will be generated by the licensing office automatically and the number can be viewed online by the applicant.
  • On the receipt of physical copy of the application, the same IEC will be printed in 24 hours’ time and dispatched to the firm.

Procedure for Physical Application i.e. how to get import export licence.


The duly signed application form should be supported by the physical documents:

  • Bank Receipt (in duplicate) /Demand Draft/ EFt details evidencing payment of application fee of Rs.1000 (Rs.500 for Electronically filed application ) in terms of Appendix 21 B of the Foreign Trade Handbook of Procedure, April 2007 Ed.
  • Certificate from the banker of the application firm in Part B of the form.
  • Self-certified copy of Permanent Account Number (PAN) issued by Income Tax Authorities.
  • Two copies of passport sixed photographs of the applicant.
  • Photograph on the banker’s certificate should be attested by the banker of the applicant.
  • Self-addressed envelope and stamp of Rs.30.
  • These documents may be kept secured in a file cover.

The Regional Authority concerned shall grant an IEC CODE number to the applicant in the prescribed format.  A copy of such IEC ONLINE CODE number shall be endorsed to the concerned format.  A copy of such IEC ONLINE CODE number shall be endorsed to the concerned banker.  The number should normally be given within two working days provided the application is complete in all respects and is accompanied by the prescribed documents.

An IEC CODE number allotted to an applicant shall be valid for all its branches/divisions/units/ factories as indicated on the IEC CODE number.

Hints for filling IEC CODE Applications.

  • Application must be made in the prescribed form in duplicate, duly accompanied by Bank Receipt/Demand Draft evidencing payment of fee.
  • Application form should be neatly typed / handwritten in bold capital letter only.
  • Each page of the application form should be signed in ink by the authorized person.
  • Supporting documents in duplicate, duly self-attested as specified earlier in this Chapter must be enclosed wherever applicable.
  • Items of information relevant to applicant should only be filled in and remaining items may be marked ‘not applicable’
  • Two copies of the passport size photograph of the applicant duly attested by the applicant’s banker shall be submitted.
  • Modifications of particulars of the applicant should also be furnished on this form by filling the relevant items.

Duplicate Copy of IEC No.

Where an IEC no. is lost or misplaced the issuing authority may considered request for grant of a duplicate copy of IEC ONLINE CODE number, if accompanied by an affidavit and a fee of Rs.200/-

Surrender of IEC No.

If an IEC ONLINE CODE holder does not wish to operate the allotted IEC ONLINE CODE number he may surrender the same by informing the issuing authority.  On receipt of such intimation, the issuing authority shall immediately cancel the same and electronically transmit to DGFT for onward transmission to the Customs and Regional Authorities.

Registration with Export Promotion Councils /Commodity Board / Authorities.

In order to enable you to obtain benefits/concessions under the Foreign Trade Policy. You are required to register yourself with the concerned Export Promotion Council or Commodity Board or Authority by obtaining registration-cum-membership (RCMC) for this purpose you should apply in the prescribed form given at Appendix III of this Book to the Export Promotion Council relating to your main line of Business.  However. A status holder has the option to obtain RCMC from Federation of Indian Exporters India Organisation (EIEO).  Exporters India of Drugs and Pharmaceutical shall obtain RCMC from Pharmexcil only.  Exporters of minor forest produce and their value added products shall obtain RCMC from Shellac Export Promotion Council (SHEFEXIL).  Software exporters India shall register themselves with Electronic and software Export Promotion Council.

An application for registration should be accompanied by a self-certified copy of Imports exporter-Exporter Code Number issued by the Regional Authority concerned and bank certificate in support of the applicant’s financial soundness, if the applicant is already registered with any other EPC, a copy of RCMC should be furnished.  In case an exporter desires to get registration as a manufacturer exporter, he should furnish evidence to that effect. In the case of manufacturer Exporter, the licensing authority may seek copy of registration with SSI/any other sponsoring authority in addition to the application in the prescribed form.  Membership fee should be paid in the form of cheque /draft after ascertaining the amount from the EPC concerned.  Service provider will furnish copy of registration/approval from the concerned authority.  If the application for registration is granted, the EPC or FIEO shall issue the RCMC indicating the status of the applicant as merchant exporter or manufacturer exporter.

Registration with Tax Authorities now applies is GST.

Goods which are to be shipped out of the country for exports are eligible for exemption from both value Added to and Central Sales Tax. For this purpose, you should get yourself registered with the Value Added Tax Authority of your State after following the procedure prescribed under the value Added Tax Act applicable to your State.

Registration with Central Excise Authorities.

Goods meant for exports are exempt from Central Excise duty.   For this purpose the manufacturer and merchant exporters India have two options. Either they can deposit Central excise duty at the time of clearance from factory and later on take refund or avail the procedure for exports of goods without payment of duty.

Obtaining Permanent Account Number (PAN)

Every person whose taxable income exceeds the basic exemption limit during an accounting year, is required to obtain Permanent Account Number (PAN) once for  ever by making an application in Form 49 A, before 31st May of the assessment year In case the total sales, turnover or gross receipts of the business or profession of the assesse, exceeds or is likely to exceed Rs. 5,00,000/- during an accounting year the application for allotment of PAN should be made before the end of the accounting year. It is compulsory to apply for PAN, in above cases even though the tax payable is nil.

Further, the following persons are compulsorily required to obtain PAN –

  1. Exporters India and importers, who are required to obtain an importer-exporter code.
  2. Assesse under the Central Excise Act.
  3. Persons issuing Cenvatable invoice under rule 57AE and registered under the Central Excise Rule, 1944;
  4. Service-tax assesses;
  5. Persons registered under the Central Sales Tax Act, 1956 or the general sales tax law of the appropriate State or Union Territory.

All above topic has been discussed in this import export course


How to get Import Export licence to do import export business in India.

Logistics , Supply Chain Management

Logistics , Supply Chain Management

Logistics and Supply Chain Management.

Historic Development.

Logistics and Supply Chain Management has been discussed in trade books and textbooks since the past two centuries. The concept of evolution of logistics and supply chain management is of recent origin and has roots in USA.

The first college textbook on purchasing was authored by prof. Howard t. Lewis of Harvard business school in 1933. Prof. Howard t. Lewis also envisaged in large companies need for creation of separate senior level post for control of materials function covering areas like purchasing, inventory control, receiving, inspection, warehousing, etc.

The importance of materials management, improved means of transportation and communication and technological changes in industries brought in the concept of ‘scientific management’ in USA.

Statistical quality control that is SQC found increasing use as the industries started mass production. SQC was adopted by industries in Britain in 1930’s while japan started to use the same after few years.

However, it was observed that senior management of the company is concentrated on other department like marketing, finance, R&D etc. Rather than purchasing, similarly skill staff was also not made available even though purchasing was responsible for chunk of the cost of the goods sold.

The quality of finished product was dependent upon the purchased materials, which in turn also have an impact in the profit of the company.

Between 1960’s and 1970’s is inventory was managed by using “Kardex” system. During this period buyer was mainly focus on “purchase price” and was concerned for continuous production rather than management of inventory.

In the beginning of 1980’s the company started marketing and procuring on international scale. The use of computers was started for the management of inventory. Management started understanding importance of controlling the cost of materials and reducing the overall cost of the product through automation of production process.

Due to this transitions role of purchasing and evolution of logistics and supply chain management function increased in organization. Inventory control leads to increase in profits of many companies. The inventory was control by using technique like just in time (JIT) and computerized materials requirement planning (MRP).

Skilled staff was now being assigned to materials function. MRP action reports replaced Kardex cards. In nutshell, the importance of materials management function was duly understood for the functional success of the organization.

Purchase management started increasing use of electronic purchasing system and Japanese system like kaizen, Kanban, quality circle, etc. Along with this, materials department started having first group of people.

who were mainly responsible for operational part of purchasing and another group of people who were responsible for department of supply function. these second group viz.,

supply managers started taking care of new product development, selecting sources, managing costs and developing strategic alliance with suppliers.

Sometimes, supply managers also participate in strategic planning of an organization. Supply strategy is one of the important strategy for formulating business plan of an organization along with other three strategies viz. Production, marketing and finance.

Objectives of logistics and supply chain management.

In earlier days performance of purchase department was measured on the basis of the change in the purchase price of materials, success in continuously feeding materials to production department and cost of running own department. However nowadays purchase and supply function is also expected to take care of such as,


Procuring defect free materials.


Reducing overall costs of acquiring, moving, holding, and converting purchased products and services.


Reducing the time required to bring new product to the market.


Providing appropriate technology on time and controlling the technology when dealing with outside suppliers.

Continuity of Supply.

Maintaining study materials to avoid in an uninterrupted supply

To sum of materials management is also related to other field of business activities and the other departments in the company.

Hence, materials management staff requires combination of technical expertise, and leadership communication and team skills, which help to achieve common goals set by organization.

Business Impact And eCommerce By Enticing Website.




Today’s web applications have substantial business impact on the way companies and consumer do business by eCommerce through Enticing Website..

  • There are opportunities to gain the upper hand and bypass the traditional brick and mortar companies when this type of opportunities was rarely possible or existed before the explosion of the web.
  • The new web created a global business environment which challenges the way in which traditional companies do business.
  • Companies need to reinvent and evolved in order to compete in today’s trends, online business and global marketplace.
  • Businesses and consumers have more options and resources to research and easily compare and shop around for the best deals.
  • Information and resources are immense and available to everyone who seeks it.
  • Businesses or companies who use to profit from consulting or advise, that can now be easily acquired online are struggling, and will need to take a new business direction if they want to stay solvent.

Building enticing e-commerce sites.

Creating an effective, Enticing Website, user friendly website is essential if you want to connect with your audience. Contextual relevancy is the biggest factor when it comes to commercial websites.

By using an appropriate color scheme, a clear visual hierarchy and an initiative navigation structure, it’s much easier to connect on an emotional level with your target audience.

The goal is also to allow consumers to connect with your product or service as effectively as possible.

What makes an Enticing Website, user friendly website? Let’s ride out.

Visually and enticing websites.

A site that is enticing makes you want to do more than look at it makes you want to use that site, dig in and look around, and end up buying something eventually.

Contextual relevancy is the biggest enticement factor when it comes to commercial websites. If you do not connect with your target audience, no matter how nicely designed the site is, it will not “entice” people to interact with it.

The only exception to that are sites that are appreciated aesthetically as works of arts online, that people “visit to just get a look”.

Yet those exceptions are not very relevant to commerce online, unless the uniqueness is used just as an additional factor to spread worth of mouth to get traffic to the site.

In addition to contextual relevancy, a visually enticing site is one that make the experience effortless for a visitor so they can just concentrate on what they want to see or do rather than on trying to figure out where to go or what to look at.

Some methods of achieving that include a clear visual hierarchy, which helps visitors to effortlessly decide what to look at and what to click, as well as a well-thought-out side architecture, including an intuitive navigation structure.

Choosing the right enticing color scheme.

Picking a color scheme for website is a crucial step to conveying your brand and establishing the emotional responses you wish to elicit from your target audience.

Contextual relevancy is again very important here. Colors need to be based on emotions and visual references that need to be evoked to properly connect with target audience.

Colors have a lot of intuitive meaning to people, across generation and cultures. Some colors are energetic, vibrant and inspiring. others are smoothing and calming.

The trick is to understand the emotions that will be most appropriate for your target audience to feel while visiting your site, and then provide those colors, along with appropriate visual imagery, that prompt those feelings.

Simplify navigation.

You want to throw everything at your visitor and make them figure it out. If you tell them to sink or swim, they’ll just go to your competition’s pool which is only a click away.

While making your site so user-friendly that you are visitors never have to think just click, click, click right through the entire purchase process is daunting one, it will make all the difference to your conversion rates.

Furthermore, you not only enjoy increasing sales as a result, but you also actually owe it to your loyal customers to make their experience with you as easy and enjoyable as you can possibly make it.

Perfecting your site’s is usability required several things. First, you want to make use of established best practices. Next, you will want to have a clear understanding of your target audience and their needs, their internet user levels and their emotional mindsets, finally, you will need to test, adjust, and test again.

There is a method called quantum () to test the mental effort required to navigate a site, as well as the emotional responses triggered by that site.

Quantemo studies as well as other usability studies help show how simplifying navigation is a price step to take to increase conversions and user satisfaction.

Research and analysis.

Quantemo and other is usability studies have revealed a great deal of best practices applicable to any industry, such as how people respond to colors and imagery and how navigation structure that are seemingly obvious to a company end up absolutely confounding their users.

When we have conducted our own studies, we have seen executive from our client companies flinching with agony watching study participants after study party cement passing their gazes over the button they are supposed to click, all because it wasn’t in the place they it to be.

We can point out need that the customer may not have thought of, and when properly communicated and pointed out, in a way you can entice and otherwise indifferent customer.

Most in different customers are indifferent because they are too busy with their own

Things to go out and look for something new they may need especially if the site is hard to use and the wastes they their time.

So overall getting them engaged and then making it easy to evaluate a product can entice and in different customers.

Enticing indifferent consumers.

You cannot, or at least should not, sale something that a consumer completely doesn’t need. You can and should, however, are effectively point out needs that a consumer may not have considered thought of.

A good example would be for products that address spyware, keyloggers and similar internet nuisances and dangerous, which may consumers are completely indifferent to since they are not educated on the issues.

If they are educated to understand how spyware not only intrudes on their privacy. But also affects their computer’s performance.

They may find that they are in fact quite interested in solving that problem with a product designed to protect them from it.

The goal is to allow consumer to connect with your product or service as effectively as possible, at the point in time when the consumer is ready, or getting ready to purchase.

Making the process is easy and as enticing as possible can then facilitate additional sales to repeat purchase or referrals.

So again, we can point out needs that the customer may not have thought of, and when properly communicated and pointed out, in a way you can entice and otherwise indifferent customers.

Most indifferent customers are indifferent because they are too busy with their own things to go out and look for something new they may need especially if the site is hard to use and waste their time.

So overall getting them engaged and then making it easy to evaluate a product can entice an indifferent customer.

Great deals that don’t sell.

Perhaps the most common mistake we see that sound good to the company but just isn’t is putting too many products on the homepage just because they are “all great products” or “highly profitable”.

yet overwhelming the visitor is not going to sell products, no matter how cool or profitable they are. A good site architecture will have visitors find that what they want not what, the site wants to shove down their throats.

Also, a lot of companies sit down and say “okay, we are going to be different let’s figure out how we are going to be different”.

And being different from your competitions is indeed what your brand is all about. but some companies go down the wrong path and try to mess with established best practices instead of focusing on differentiating their products or identity.

Doing things like having your navigation appear on picture of a cheeseburger on your homepage isn’t different, it’s just silly, and it get in a way of pleasant and effortless experience for your users.

Another thing we see a lot is companies trying to be everything to everyone. While you could argue that some companies have managed it amazon.com come to mind most companies are not going to be able to stand out in the crowd with no clear brand identity.

Picking a market, and then working to dominate that, is the best way to increase revenue and conversions.

Exemplary e-commerce sites.

Amazon.com is not “the” standard of e-commerce site for nothing. They have managed to make the shopping experience there truly interactive, with reviews and personalized recommendations that are quite often right on the money.

Some things are still overwhelming such as overview pages and some navigation yet still handle quite well considering the stunning number of products they are offered for sale. Though it is not strictly and eCommerce site, we are also very impressed with the Samsung site.

The architecture is top notch and shows the incredible amount of thought that was put into the visitor’s mindset and need and each point.

An enormous amount of information is offered without being overwhelming in anyway, and the layout and navigation is intuitive throughout

In conclusion, when designing an e-commerce site, contextual relevancy plays a vital role.

Through research, analysis and testing of your side visual appeal, visual hierarchy and navigation structure, creating and enticing, user friendly website is at your fingertips.

Steps Building an eCommerce Enticing Website.

Steps Building an eCommerce Enticing Website

Steps Building an eCommerce Enticing Website.

Building an eCommerce Website.

  • Step 1 -Setup Secure Hosting.

An e-commerce sites should be hosted on its own IP address, that is, hosted securely. This enables “https” in the URL and is often required to perform e-commerce.

Your site very often can be on shared server using static IP address. This adds so small monthly cost to your website hosting.

  • Step 2- Site Design Templates.

We encourage e-commerce vendors to purchase templates from variety of template providers. Although we are happy to build custom template for your site.

We will discover that prepackaged templates can be significantly less expensive for your entire site launch costs

  • Step 3 -Your Inventory Spreadsheets.

Depending upon the nature of your product and options required by your store, you must provide a spreadsheet of your product inventory.

This spreadsheet is critical to the site built and a good spreadsheet will keep your lunch cost down.

We do not encourage you to pre-build your product inventory spreadsheet until we confer and look at your template to determine what format the spreadsheet must be in for easy import into your online store.

  • Step 4 – Merchant Account.

Taking credit card online required and online merchant account. Even if you accept credit card now, and you might not have an online merchant account yet.

You must choose if you want to accept visa and MasterCard only, or if you only want to accept other cards, such as discover, American express, or even online check.

There are fees charged by the merchant account you select and they can be monthly fees as well as percentage of online sale. Please read the documentation carefully.

  • Step 5- Authorizing Agent.

E-commerce requires that an online source verify that is credit card is valid not only does this protect your business but also it reduces charge backs on returned items services and prevents fraud

E-commerce requires that an online source verify that each credit card is valid. Not only does this protect your business, but also it reduces charge backs on returned items services and prevents fraud.

Most ecommerce templates are set up to work with only certain longstanding reputable authorizing agents

There is a setup fee and monthly fee that is charged only by authorizing agent. The setup fee is approximately 100 dollars and the monthly charge is approximately 20 dollars. These charges are billed to your business’ credit card

Other E-Commerce.

You can choose to use PayPal for eCommerce. PayPal act as a merchant account and credit card verifying agency all in one. You can login to PayPal, set up an account and read the rules and policies. Most eCommerce templates work with PayPal

Choice for Authorizing Agent.

The choice as to which sort of authorizing agent you want to use is up to you. We urge you to read the fine print and understand how much each one will cost.

Steps Building an eCommerce Enticing Website.